Tareket in Pesantren Buntet - Buntet Pesantren Tareket in Pesantren Buntet - Buntet Pesantren
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    Wednesday, June 25, 2008

    Tareket in Pesantren Buntet


    On Java, the pesantren and the tarekat, meaning (mystical) path, is the hall-mark of traditional Islam. The
    former is a place where syare'at (the exoteric dimension of
    Islam) is transmitted to the next generation; the second, in the strictest sense, is an
    organisation by which the esoteric dimension of Islam is established, especially among the


    The pesantren mainly prepares the young to cope
    with their immediate future in social life. It enables them to undertake active and acceptable
    participation in various societal roles without neglecting the more distant future, the
    hereafter. The tarekat, on the other hand, prepares the
    aged to cope with their immediate future. It attempts to secure for followers' safety and well
    being in the hereafter, after they feel that their worldly life is close to its end. In
    addition, the tarekat attempts to open the heavens to the
    public. It is a way to ensure equity of opportunity for entry to paradise  between
    the religiously knowledgeable individuals and the laymen, and between the rich and the

    The tarekat is usually associated with tasawuf. The objective of joining a tarekat comes after a commitment to the Sufi
    way (tasawuf) is taken by means of cleansing the heart
    (tasfiyatul qalb).[3] In practice, tasawuf is a strict adoption of
    the Islamic precepts through observance of both obligatory and recommended religious work for
    attaining God's favour. Although not always, the by-product of doing tasawuf, if God's favour is obtained, is the ability of the individual to attain
    the knowledge of Divine Truths, the Essence (hakekat). The
    attainment of the Truth is ma'rifat, literally meaning
    knowing the Reality (gnosis).

    Ma'rifat (gnosis) is knowing
    the hakekat, the Essence or Divine Truth. This hakekat can be attained by following tasawuf, cleansing the heart. It is said that to many people, doing tasawuf, although not essential, is much easier and more convenient
    if it is carried out by following a certain tarekat (path).
    Whichever one would choose, the pre-requisite for following tarekat is the observance of syare'at. As not
    every Muslim observes the syare'at, not every Muslim who
    observes the syare'at wishes to follow a tarekat. In turn, not all the Muslims who follow a certain
    tarekat could attain the hakekat and thus experience ma'rifat. In local
    popular uses syare'at, tarekat, hakekat and ma'rifat form a sequence to characterise the degree of piety in
    which the first is the lowest, and the last is the highest. Because of either individual or
    societal factors only wali are thought to be likely to
    reach ma'rifat.




    Pesantren Buntet gives homage to two tarekat, the
    Syattariyah, which came earlier and the Tijaniyah which came later. Both belong to the
    tarekat mu'tabarah (accepted tarekat).[4]

    Although since its first stage Pesantren Buntet has been associated with Tarekat Syattariyah (the Syattariyah Order),[5] the formal introduction of this tarekat within
    the pesantren circle is said to have been announced
    publicly only after Kyai Anwaruddin Kriyani al-Malebari (Ki Buyut Kriyan) arrived. When Kyai
    Mutta'ad led the pesantren, Kyai Anwaruddin, married Nyai
    Ruhillah, daughter of Kyai Mutta'ad; after that he publicly set up the tarekat in Pesantren Buntet.

    Trimingham describes Syattariyah's origin as being obscure. The tarekat is claimed to be in Taifuri traditions but its foundation is attributed
    to ‘Abdallah al-Syattar, a descendant of Syihab ad-Din as-Suhrawardi. According to Trimingham
    ‘Abdallah was sent by his pir (a leader of the order),
    Muhammad ‘Arif, to India; first to Jawnpur, then to Mandu where he died in 1428/9. His Path
    was spread by his pupils, especially Muhammad ‘Ala’, known as Qazan Syattari of Bengal. Its
    full development as a distinctive order is attributed to Shah Muhammad Ghawth of Gwalior
    (circa. 1517) who was succeeded by Syah Wajih ad-Din (circa. 1018/1609) who, in Gujerat, was
    known as a great saint.


    Table 8.1: The Spiritual Genealogy (Silsilah) of
    Tarekat Syattariyah at Buntet

    1. The Prophet Muhammad

    2. Ali bin Abi Thalib

    3. Husein

    4. Zain al-’Abidin

    5. Al-Baqir

    6. Ja'far Shadiq

    7. Abi Yazid al-Busthami

    8. Muhammad Maghribi

    9. Abi Yazid al-’Ashaq

    10. Abi Mudhaffar Turki at-Tusi

    11. Hasan Khirqani

    12. Hadaqly

    13. Muhammad ‘Asyiq

    14. ‘Arif

    15. Abdillah Syattari

    16. Qadhi Syattari

    17. Hidayatillah Sarmat

    18. Hudhari

    19. Al-Ghawth

    20. Sibghatillah

    21. Ahmad Syanani

    22. Ahmad Qasyasyi

    23. Malla Ibrahim al-Mu'alla

    24. Thahir

    25. Ibrahim

    26. Thahir Madani

    27. Muhammad Sayid Madani

    28. Kyai Asy'ari

    29. Muhammad Anwaruddin Kriyani (Ki Buyut

    Although its chain clearly links with Suhrawardiyah, this tarekat does not regard itself as an offshoot of any order. In Iran and Turan
    Syattariyah was known as ‘Isyqiyah, and in Ottoman Turkey as Bisthamiyah.[6] It was brought to Indonesia (Aceh) by Abdul Rauf Singkel, who brought with him the
    theosophical doctrines of the seven stages of creation (Martabat
    ). Among his students was Syeikh Abdul Muhyi who brought the tarekat to south Priangan (West Java) via Cirebon.[7] Although it is said that before going to  south Priangan Syeikh Muhyi
    married and lived in Cirebon for some period of time, Tarekat Syattariyah in Buntet has no
    link with him nor with Abdul Rauf Singkel because the Syattariyah came to Buntet from a
    different source.

    Figure 8.1: Recruitment of Syattariyah Mursyid in Buntet

    Figure 8.1: Recruitment of Syattariyah Mursyid in Buntet


    In Buntet, Kyai Anwaruddin Kriyani al-Malebari (Ki Buyut Kriyan), the founder of the
    Syattariyah order in Buntet received his authority as a mursyid (leader) from Kyai Asy'ary of Kaliwungu (Central Java). Table 8.1. shows
    the spiritual genealogy (silsilah) of Kyai Asy'ari to whom
    Kyai Anwaruddin in turn traced his authority. The latter therefore, is the 29th in the
    genealogical chain that relates him spiritually to the Prophet.


    As a Syattariyah mursyid, Kyai Anwaruddin in turn authorised Kyai Muhammad Saleh
    Zamzami, the founder of Pesantren Benda at Benda Kerep, to become a new mursyid when Kyai Zamzami was 57 years old (1317/1898). Kyai Saleh
    Zamzami authorised his brother at Buntet, Kyai Abdul Jamil, who authorised first Kyai Abbas
    and then Kyai Ahmad Zahid. Kyai Abbas authorised Kyai Mustahdi,  who authorised Kyai
    Abdullah Abbas, Kyai Fu'ad Hasyim and Abbas Shobih (Kang Obih). Kyai Ahmad Zahid, on the other
    hand, authorised Kyai Izzuddin (Figure 8.1).

    In addition to this, Tarekat Syattariyah is said to have been part of kraton traditions but it seems to have a different genealogy. The
    present Syattariyah mursyid within the kraton circle is P.S. Sulendraningrat of Kaprabonan at Lemah
    Wungkuk. He is a 15th descendant of Sunan Gunung Jati and the writer of Sejarah Cirebon and Babad Tanah Sunda,
    Babad Cerbon
    .[8] Mbah Muqayim who was Penghulu Kraton, the
    founder of Pesantren Buntet, is said to have been a mursyid
    of Syattariyah kraton although in Buntet he did not recruit
    members or, if he did, it was not publicly. In Buntet Tarekat Syattariyah had won thousands of
    followers but after the death of Kyai Mustahdi its organisational significance has diminished
    considerably.[9] Now, this tarekat still persists and is still
    strong in Benda Kerep, but in Buntet it seems to be left as a mere individual observance
    rather than an organised group.[10]



    Adobted from the Book

    The Islamic Traditions of Cirebon

    Ibadat and Adat Among Javanese Muslims


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