Tareket in Pesantren Buntet

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Tareket in Pesantren Buntet

Rabu, 25 Juni 2008

INTRODUCTION




On Java, the pesantren and the tarekat, meaning (mystical) path, is the hall-mark of traditional Islam. The
former is a place where syare'at (the exoteric dimension of
Islam) is transmitted to the next generation; the second, in the strictest sense, is an
organisation by which the esoteric dimension of Islam is established, especially among the
aged.[1]



 



The pesantren mainly prepares the young to cope
with their immediate future in social life. It enables them to undertake active and acceptable
participation in various societal roles without neglecting the more distant future, the
hereafter. The tarekat, on the other hand, prepares the
aged to cope with their immediate future. It attempts to secure for followers' safety and well
being in the hereafter, after they feel that their worldly life is close to its end. In
addition, the tarekat attempts to open the heavens to the
public. It is a way to ensure equity of opportunity for entry to paradise  between
the religiously knowledgeable individuals and the laymen, and between the rich and the
poor.[2]







The tarekat is usually associated with tasawuf. The objective of joining a tarekat comes after a commitment to the Sufi
way (tasawuf) is taken by means of cleansing the heart
(tasfiyatul qalb).[3] In practice, tasawuf is a strict adoption of
the Islamic precepts through observance of both obligatory and recommended religious work for
attaining God's favour. Although not always, the by-product of doing tasawuf, if God's favour is obtained, is the ability of the individual to attain
the knowledge of Divine Truths, the Essence (hakekat). The
attainment of the Truth is ma'rifat, literally meaning
knowing the Reality (gnosis).







Ma'rifat (gnosis) is knowing
the hakekat, the Essence or Divine Truth. This hakekat can be attained by following tasawuf, cleansing the heart. It is said that to many people, doing tasawuf, although not essential, is much easier and more convenient
if it is carried out by following a certain tarekat (path).
Whichever one would choose, the pre-requisite for following tarekat is the observance of syare'at. As not
every Muslim observes the syare'at, not every Muslim who
observes the syare'at wishes to follow a tarekat. In turn, not all the Muslims who follow a certain
tarekat could attain the hakekat and thus experience ma'rifat. In local
popular uses syare'at, tarekat, hakekat and ma'rifat form a sequence to characterise the degree of piety in
which the first is the lowest, and the last is the highest. Because of either individual or
societal factors only wali are thought to be likely to
reach ma'rifat.




 



 


EARLY TAREKAT IN BUNTET: SYATTARIYAH







Pesantren Buntet gives homage to two tarekat, the
Syattariyah, which came earlier and the Tijaniyah which came later. Both belong to the
tarekat mu'tabarah (accepted tarekat).[4]









Although since its first stage Pesantren Buntet has been associated with Tarekat Syattariyah (the Syattariyah Order),[5] the formal introduction of this tarekat within
the pesantren circle is said to have been announced
publicly only after Kyai Anwaruddin Kriyani al-Malebari (Ki Buyut Kriyan) arrived. When Kyai
Mutta'ad led the pesantren, Kyai Anwaruddin, married Nyai
Ruhillah, daughter of Kyai Mutta'ad; after that he publicly set up the tarekat in Pesantren Buntet.








Trimingham describes Syattariyah's origin as being obscure. The tarekat is claimed to be in Taifuri traditions but its foundation is attributed
to ‘Abdallah al-Syattar, a descendant of Syihab ad-Din as-Suhrawardi. According to Trimingham
‘Abdallah was sent by his pir (a leader of the order),
Muhammad ‘Arif, to India; first to Jawnpur, then to Mandu where he died in 1428/9. His Path
was spread by his pupils, especially Muhammad ‘Ala’, known as Qazan Syattari of Bengal. Its
full development as a distinctive order is attributed to Shah Muhammad Ghawth of Gwalior
(circa. 1517) who was succeeded by Syah Wajih ad-Din (circa. 1018/1609) who, in Gujerat, was
known as a great saint.








 




Table 8.1: The Spiritual Genealogy (Silsilah) of
Tarekat Syattariyah at Buntet

































































































1. The Prophet Muhammad




2. Ali bin Abi Thalib




3. Husein




4. Zain al-’Abidin




5. Al-Baqir




6. Ja'far Shadiq




7. Abi Yazid al-Busthami




8. Muhammad Maghribi




9. Abi Yazid al-’Ashaq




10. Abi Mudhaffar Turki at-Tusi




11. Hasan Khirqani




12. Hadaqly




13. Muhammad ‘Asyiq




14. ‘Arif




15. Abdillah Syattari




16. Qadhi Syattari




17. Hidayatillah Sarmat




18. Hudhari




19. Al-Ghawth




20. Sibghatillah




21. Ahmad Syanani




22. Ahmad Qasyasyi




23. Malla Ibrahim al-Mu'alla




24. Thahir




25. Ibrahim




26. Thahir Madani




27. Muhammad Sayid Madani




28. Kyai Asy'ari




29. Muhammad Anwaruddin Kriyani (Ki Buyut
Kriyan)
.







Although its chain clearly links with Suhrawardiyah, this tarekat does not regard itself as an offshoot of any order. In Iran and Turan
Syattariyah was known as ‘Isyqiyah, and in Ottoman Turkey as Bisthamiyah.[6] It was brought to Indonesia (Aceh) by Abdul Rauf Singkel, who brought with him the
theosophical doctrines of the seven stages of creation (Martabat
Tujuh
). Among his students was Syeikh Abdul Muhyi who brought the tarekat to south Priangan (West Java) via Cirebon.[7] Although it is said that before going to  south Priangan Syeikh Muhyi
married and lived in Cirebon for some period of time, Tarekat Syattariyah in Buntet has no
link with him nor with Abdul Rauf Singkel because the Syattariyah came to Buntet from a
different source.







Figure 8.1: Recruitment of Syattariyah Mursyid in Buntet











Figure 8.1: Recruitment of Syattariyah Mursyid in Buntet



 



In Buntet, Kyai Anwaruddin Kriyani al-Malebari (Ki Buyut Kriyan), the founder of the
Syattariyah order in Buntet received his authority as a mursyid (leader) from Kyai Asy'ary of Kaliwungu (Central Java). Table 8.1. shows
the spiritual genealogy (silsilah) of Kyai Asy'ari to whom
Kyai Anwaruddin in turn traced his authority. The latter therefore, is the 29th in the
genealogical chain that relates him spiritually to the Prophet.



 



As a Syattariyah mursyid, Kyai Anwaruddin in turn authorised Kyai Muhammad Saleh
Zamzami, the founder of Pesantren Benda at Benda Kerep, to become a new mursyid when Kyai Zamzami was 57 years old (1317/1898). Kyai Saleh
Zamzami authorised his brother at Buntet, Kyai Abdul Jamil, who authorised first Kyai Abbas
and then Kyai Ahmad Zahid. Kyai Abbas authorised Kyai Mustahdi,  who authorised Kyai
Abdullah Abbas, Kyai Fu'ad Hasyim and Abbas Shobih (Kang Obih). Kyai Ahmad Zahid, on the other
hand, authorised Kyai Izzuddin (Figure 8.1).








In addition to this, Tarekat Syattariyah is said to have been part of kraton traditions but it seems to have a different genealogy. The
present Syattariyah mursyid within the kraton circle is P.S. Sulendraningrat of Kaprabonan at Lemah
Wungkuk. He is a 15th descendant of Sunan Gunung Jati and the writer of Sejarah Cirebon and Babad Tanah Sunda,
Babad Cerbon
.[8] Mbah Muqayim who was Penghulu Kraton, the
founder of Pesantren Buntet, is said to have been a mursyid
of Syattariyah kraton although in Buntet he did not recruit
members or, if he did, it was not publicly. In Buntet Tarekat Syattariyah had won thousands of
followers but after the death of Kyai Mustahdi its organisational significance has diminished
considerably.[9] Now, this tarekat still persists and is still
strong in Benda Kerep, but in Buntet it seems to be left as a mere individual observance
rather than an organised group.[10]



 



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Adobted from the Book


The Islamic Traditions of Cirebon



Ibadat and Adat Among Javanese Muslims